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PARLIAMENT

Since 2016, the Kingdom of Kronenburg has been divided in four so called 'Elements', which are equal members of the kingdom: Kronenburg proper, West-Cod, the Virgin Islands, and the White Islands. Each of these has its own parliament and government and in practice they operate as independent nations. There is one combined parliament however, the Zuidkamer, which has 25 members, eleven of whom are elected by Kronenburg, six by West-Cod, four by the Virgin Islands, and another four by the White Islands.

The legislative power of Kronenburg proper is in hands of the government (Oostkamer) and parliament (Noordkamer and Westkamer): parliament passes the bills that are most often designed by or by order of the Oostkamer. The head of state (the king) too is part of the legislative power: he has to sign bills into force. According to the current constitution, the king isn't however obliged to sign, but since 1981, no king has ever refused to sign a bill.

The Kronenburg parliamentary buildings are divided in four chambers, named after the four wind directions (north, east, south and west). Although the functions of these chambers have varied in the past, currently the Noordkamer is the house of representatives, the Oostkamer is the council of ministers, and since 2016, the Westkamer has adopted some tasks of the former Zuidkamer (the senate) but it is mostly an advisory body to the other chambers. More information about the Oostkamer can be found under 'government'.

The Noordkamer
What is now called Noordkamer was founded as a unicameral parliament in 1627. Until 1649 it was simply called the Raad ('Council') and after that the Volksvertegenwoordiging ('Parliament'). In the years during which the Kronenburgish kings still resided in Europe, Kronenburg was ruled by the Chairman of Parliament and his assistants. This situation changed during the reign of king William IV and his successors. Especially since parliament was moved to Alexanderstad and, due to the lay-out of the parliamentary buildings there, became known as the Noordkamer, it more and more got the function which it still has today: a body that passes bills and watches over the executive power. The members of the Noordkamer are elected once every four years. Since 2006, the Noordkamer has 175 members. After the first elections following the change of the constitution in 2015-2016, the number of members will however be reduced to 101 and the election frequency will be five years.

The Chairman of the Noordkamer isn't as important anymore as he was in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when he was practically acting head of state. Nowadays, the Chairman can become acting prime minister of an interim government, if the Oostkamer resigns with immediate effect or if it is sacked by the Noordkamer. If so, the vice chairman becomes acting chairman of the Noordkamer.

The Westkamer
In 1829, king Willem IV founded the Koninkrijksraad ('Council of the Realm') and filled it with his own supporters, so that it could counterbalance the power of the Noordkamer. Until 1949 this council (which was called Westkamer after the 1870's) had the task to re-evaluate the work done by the Noordkamer, but it also had advisory tasks. After 1949 the first task went to the newly founded Zuidkamer, while the Westkamer remained only an advisory body. The members of the Westkamer are appointed by the head of state, but since 1981 on the recommendation of the Noordkamer and the prime minister. An exception on this rule is the Zetel der Nassaus ('Seat of the Nassaus'), which is taken by the crown prince(ss) or the heir(ess) presumptive when he or she reaches the age of 20 years, until he or she ceases to be crown prince(ss) or heir(ess) presumptive (by becoming king or queen, by being replaced in the line of succession by someone else, etc.). Since 2006, the Westkamer has 34 seats, including the Zetel der Nassaus, which is currently empty.

The Zetel der Nassaus was taken by:
   1829 - 1934     crown prince Willem (after 1840 king Willem II of the Netherlands); he attended the meetings twice
   1851 - 1875     crown prince Alexander Friso (after 1875 king Alexander II Friso)
   1904 - 1943     crown prince Alexander (died before his mother, queen Marianne)
   1943 - 1953     crown prince Willem Hendrik (after 1953 king Willem V Hendrik)
   1959 - 1963     crown prince Jan (in 1963 king Jan II); he didn't attend any meetings
   1963 - 1963     prince Alexander Ernst, being the heir presumptive (after 1963 king Alexander III Ernst)
   1968 - 1991     crown prince Alexander Lodewijk (after 1991 king Alexander IV Lodewijk)
   1996 - 1999     crown prince Alexander Casimir (lost his position in the line of succession after his marriage)
   1999 - 2010     crown prince Johan Ernst (after 2010 king Ernst I Frederik)

The Zuidkamer

Before 2016
The Zuidkamer was created after the constitution change of 1949, which caused the separation of the tasks of the Westkamer. Comparable to the institution of Senate in other countries, the Zuidkamer closely watched and evaluated the activities of the Noordkamer. Bills approved by the latter had to be passed by the Zuidkamer too, before they could go to the king for signing. The Zuidkamer could only approve or reject bills and didn't have the power to change them. Normally the Zuidkamer only rejected a bill when a majority thought it was a really bad idea to introduce it. When there was discontent about mere details, the Zuidkamer didn't vote, but sent the bill back to the Noordkamer for reconsideration. The bill that had the longest record of moving back and forth between Noordkamer and Zuidkamer, was the Bill on the Revision of Primary Education of 1972 - 1977, which was sent back by the Zuidkamer as many as sixteen times in a period of five years. The members of the Zuidkamer were elected by the municipal councils once every four years.

After 2016
The constitution change of 2015-2016 saw the dismantling of the senate tasks. Those that remained were once again added to those of the Westkamer; the rest was abolished. The Zuidkamer got a new purpose however, namely that as highest parliament of the Kingdom of Kronenburg; more details about this have already been given above.

The Promulgation
Every year, on the first Friday of February, the king of Kronenburg opens the parliamentary year by reading the Promulgation ('Promulgatie' in Dutch; officially the Promulgatio Rerum Publicarum Regni Coronamburgensis). The first Friday of February is also the date on which the terms of newly elected parliaments and municipal councils as well as the newly formed government start.

Chair(wo)men of the Noordkamer

1649 - 1653
1653 - 1661
1661 - 1664
1664 - 1669
1669 - 1673
1673 - 1684
1684 - 1686
1687 - 1693
1693 - 1697
1697 - 1707
1707 - 1710
1710 - 1721
1721 - 1725
1725 - 1729
1729 - 1729
1729 - 1740
1740 - 1749
1749 - 1753
1753 - 1760
1760 - 1761
1761 - 1773
1773 - 1777
1777 - 1781
1781 - 1789

Johan Joustra
Jelle Simonsma I
Pieter Klaasma
Jan Tuinstra
Harm Heeroma
Harm Tjallingh
Cornelis Oosterhuijs
Fetze Ebbinga
Harmen Jongstra
Frans Pietersma
Jetze Haamsma
Johannes Wybenga
Hendrik Åsby
Harm Wubs
Daniël Wubs
Harmen Bijlsma
Klaas Mensing
Asgård Haraldson
Lykele Maarsingh
Svenn Kobenby
Thorsten Olofson
Jelle Simonsma II
Tjabbe Terpstra
Aike Wubs

1789 - 1791
1791 - 1797
1797 - 1805
1805 - 1813
1813 - 1817
1817 - 1821
1821 - 1829
1829 - 1837
1837 - 1845
1845 - 1849
1849 - 1857
1857 - 1861
1861 - 1865
1865 - 1873
1873 - 1877
1877 - 1881
1881 - 1893
1893 - 1897
1897 - 1901
1901 - 1905
1905 - 1909
1909 - 1917
1917 - 1921
1921 - 1925

Bjorn Christianson
Hendrik Aalsma
Roelof-Jan van Egteren
Reindert Stægeman
Edze Joustra
Karel Tinnemans
Johannes Deter
Egbert Koops
Erik Bruinsma
Hans Joustra
Sven Wubs
Arnoud Tjerkstra
Harmen Reder
Hendrik Wybenga
Karsten Thomasson
Danus van Rouveen
Cornelis Bijlsma Tadema
Erik Falting
Sietze Stoeldraaijer
Pieter-Jan Okkema Tuinstra
Bernard Haaksma
Leon Geere de Weel
Martijn Leisma
Xander Hubertus Menkema

1925 - 1929
1929 - 1933
1933 - 1937
1937 - 1947
1947 - 1949
1949 - 1953
1953 - 1961
1961 - 1965
1965 - 1969
1969 - 1973
1973 - 1977
1977 - 1981
1981 - 1985
1985 - 1993
1993 - 1997
1997 - 2001
2001 - 2006
2006 - 2007
2007 - 2008
2008 - 2011
2011 - 2015
2015 - 2019

Hans Johan Jibbesma
Reindert van Oosterbeek
Willem Achterkamp
Jan van Zijl
Klaas Bergsma
Fetze Diemert
David Bosman van Hoogeveen
Leon Koops
Harm Joustra
Heleen Wubs-Ebbinga (f)
Hans-Peter Wysma
Willem de Vries
Frans Bouma
Greet de Boer-Lansink (f)
Frederik Sibranda
Michael Leese
Anton Wolff
Hans Brontsema
Annemarie Torringa-Haraldson (f)
Frederik Japickx
Pia Godeken-Möländer (f)
Marylin van den Brink (f)
here be nothing
Chair(wo)men of the Westkamer

1829 - 1837
1837 - 1841
1841 - 1845
1845 - 1857
1857 - 1865
1865 - 1873
1873 - 1877
1877 - 1881
1881 - 1897

Hans Peter Buwalda
Harm Kronenburger
Fetze Alma
Tjerk Bottema Tadema
Cornelis Kobenby Jaltada
Jan Werink
Stein Marksen
Olof Veeman
Filip Roorda Tadema

1897 - 1901
1901 - 1917
1917 - 1925
1925 - 1929
1929 - 1937
1937 - 1949
1949 - 1953
1953 - 1965
1965 - 1973

Klaas Bentink
Klaas Fransen
Jan van Groningen
Hubert de Man
Abbe Lenstra
Willem Brogman Wess
Kees Wiersma
Tjitte Dantuma de Vries
Rense Attema

1973 - 1985
1985 - 1989
1989 - 1997
1997 - 2005
2005 - 2009
2009 - 2013
2013 - 2013

Ben Keunink
Frans Wallis
Werner Johann Brahms
Carmen Polender-Cartwright (f)
Jan Huitsing
Elias Nothomb
Ivo Casseboom
here be dragons
Chair(wo)men of the Zuidkamer 1949 - 2015

1949 - 1953
1953 - 1965
1965 - 1969
1969 - 1977
1977 - 1981

Ad Numan
Freek Buwalda
Hans Jaltada
Hendrik Brugman
Carina de Laat (f)

1981 - 1995
1995 - 1999
1999 - 2003
2003 - 2007
2007 - 2015

Willem Bentvelt
David Brogman Wess
Anna van Booven (f)
Henk Kamminga
Erwin Lijnema
   
here be dragons
Chair(wo)men of the Zuidkamer since 2016

2016 - 2021

to be decided