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Until the second half of the 17th century the isles of Kronenburg were inhabited by indigenous people; 'Native Americans' or 'Indians', as they were called by the Europeans in those days. The Narragansett and Massachusett or Wampanoag, as they are said to have called themselves, had been living there for centuries, when in the 16th century the first Europeans came to the isles. Those were mostly Dutch colonists, from the northernmost provinces of the Republic of the United Netherlands; Groningen and Friesland. In the first few years the relationship between the indigenous people and the colonists was quite good, especially between the Narragansett and the Europeans. Documents written in that time even mention some marriages between members of both societies.

In 1627 this came to an end. In this year some colonists, mostly merchants, founded the Republic of New Frisia, after the model of the Republic of the United Netherlands in Europe. The New Frisian equivalent of parliament became the Council, which resided in Friescheburg, the capital of the Republic. Lead by the incompetent and corrupt stadtholder Johannes Pietersma (1596 - 1644) they not only forced the other colonists to recognise the new state, but it also lead to the end of the good relations with the Narragansett and the Wampanoag. The larger part of these peoples were chased away or simply murdered during the following years. The stadtholder himself encountered the same fate however in 1644, after his lewd practices with young boys were made public. The citizens of New Frisia revolted against him and his merchant allies and he was executed without trial (he was in fact beheaded; supposedly with a blunt axe, which may have caused unbearable suffering). After the Kingdom of Kronenburg was founded, the few indigenous people that had survived the failed experiment of the Republic, lost their identities and mingled themselves with the new inhabitants of their country. Only a few present day Kronenburgers still show their native American ancestry.

king William I

The early kingdom (1649 - 1807)
After the failed attempt to create a republic, the Council in Friescheburg decided that the country should become a kingdom instead. After all, most countries in Europe were monarchies and it had yet to be proven that other forms of government were as good as those. William Frederick of Nassau Dietz was invited to become king of Kronenburg, and he accepted. From that moment on, New Frisia was called the Kingdom of Kronenburg. However, none of the early kings ever visited their country on the west side of the Atlantic Ocean. The first king thought that it was more important to reside in the Netherlands, because there he could remain in contact with the other European nobility more easily. Also, from a European point of view, the newly created kingdom wasn't taken very seriously. In Kronenburg this didn't matter very much; the country was ruled by the Chairman of Parliament, who acted as head of state in absence of the king. The Chairmen could appoint persons to assist him, the Alderman of State. From 1650 on, the Chairman read the Promulgatio Rerum Publicarum Regni Coronamburgensis (short Promulgation) every year, to announce his plans for the future. The legislative powers were in the hands of the parliament as well as its Chairman, the latter being also the executive power. Because of this, the Chairman had a lot of influence in Kronenburg politics and society.

The relations with the neighbouring colonies were quite good, in general at least. Several early Chairmen had plans of adding New Amsterdam (present day New York) to Kronenburg, and some colonists in New Amsterdam seemed to think at the time that this was a good idea, too. New Amsterdam was however exchanged for Suriname in 1664, so the colony became British. The situation was now the other way around, as Kronenburg became the object of desire of Britain. When Chairman Harm Tjallingh [1673 - 1684] passed a law increasing the tax levels that foreign ships had to pay when visiting a Kronenburg port, it nearly caused an armed conflict with London; Tjallingh was persuaded by Parliament to make an exception for British ships and the matter was closed.

king William III

The 18th century saw the coming of a large group of Scandinavian colonists, mostly Danes. They founded several new settlements, among those Denestad, which is now one of the seventh largest city in Kronenburg. This century also brought independence for the colonists in New England. Kronenburg assisted the colonists on more than one occasion in reaching their goal, as Britain had become more and more aggressive towards Kronenburg. After the American independence was proclaimed in 1776, Kronenburg managed to increase its territory with the eastern part of Long Island as well as with parts of Massachusetts, particularly Cape Cod. This created the first tensions between Kronenburg and the newly formed United States of America and eventually two wars were fought between both countries. During the last one in 1871 both regions were reconquered by the United States, although Kronenburg got to keep the isle of West-Cod.

At the end of the 18th century king William III came to Kronenburg. He had to leave the Republic of the United Netherlands in 1795 (were he was known as stadtholder William V) and thus he travelled to his overseas territory to take some sort of holiday. In Kronenburg he was mainly seen in public in ceremonial situations and he makes himself very popular by doing so, and by not interfering in the state government. Upon his death in 1806, a great politician was lost, according to many Kronenburg citizens. His son, king William IV, maintained his father's policies in the beginning, but in 1807 he decided to drastically reform the Kronenburg state system.

king William IV

The rule of William IV and its aftermath (1807 - 1879)
King William IV created a new stately organ in 1807, a Council of Ministers, because he found that the Chairman and the Parliament had too much power. The Chairman - at that time Reindert Stęgeman - was stripped of his privileges. Of course Stęgeman and most members of Parliament opposed the king's move, but they found that the country's army backed the king. Stęgeman was confined to his quarters for the period of almost two years, and although he was re-elected as Chairman in 1809, he found that the king had made sure that both he and Parliament were no longer capable or allowed to exercise power. The first form of a political party in Kronenburg was founded by those opposed to the changes the king was making; the called themselves the Statesmen. As a reaction politicians that approved the king's policies, formed a group called the Monarchists. Note that the Statesmen were not necessarily against the monarchy itself; they just disagreed with king William IV's actions.

The citizens of Kronenburg felt the changes only after 1815. In that year king William IV became the first king of the Netherlands (as William I) and he planned to unite both countries. The king appointed Dutch increasingly large numbers of officials in Kronenburg, leaving the Kronenburg people as second-rate citizens in their own country. Johannes Deter [1821 - 1829] was the first (and only) Chairman of Parliament who was directly imported from the Netherlands. Throughout the entire country Dutch persons replaced aldermen, judges, even mayors and ministers. During the 20's the Dutch got more and more privileges, and the king introduces Dutch as the official language of Kronenburg. In 1828 it was rumoured that the king would move permanently to The Hague and that he would replace the Kronenburg government by one minister for Kronenburg Affairs. The Statesmen decided that things had gotten out of hand and they organized a series of insurrections in Kronenburg-City (which was the capital of Kronenburg from 1649 until 1873) and in Friescheburg. In the next few years the Statesmen gained power, due to the fact that most Kronenburg-born Monarchists switched sides. In 1830 king William IV got a second insurrection on his hand as the Belgians called for independence, after which he left Kronenburg to itself.

The successor of Chairman Johannes Deter, Egbert Koops [1829 - 1837] temporarily restored the political system to the way it was before 1807. He demanded the abdication of king William IV and in 1834 his wish was fulfilled. However, as king William's eldest son was to be the next king of the Netherlands (as king William II), his second son Frederick was asked to accept the Kronenburg throne. This he did, but shortly before he was to be crowned, he changed his mind. King William IV's third son thus became king Alexander I. The new king moved to Kronenburg almost instantly and continued many of his father's policies. The Kronenburgers were very suspicious about the new king's plans, but since he was not able to change anything about the country's sovereignty, they let him, at least for the time being. From 1837 on, the king gave the various political institutions in Kronenburg more precise tasks. Parliament, including its Chairman, became a solely legislative branch, together with the Royal Council, an institution founded in 1829 by the former king to observe Parliament, especially its budget. The Council of Ministers, which was chaired by the king himself, became the executive branch.

The king's actions didn't however lead to a more peaceful political system. The years that followed were marked by quarrelling between the legislative and the executive powers. Ministers were appointed for life by the king himself, much against the will of the Statesman, who conducted various attempts to change the system again. The king had the power to condone or to reject new laws, leaving the parliament factually without any power. The revolutionary year 1848 did affect Kronenburg, making it a particularly turbulent year. A liberal movement, wanting to reduce the king's political power, managed to burn down the buildings of the Royal Council. After this, many liberals were arrested, and the revolution halted before it had really started.

Alexander I

Deteriorating relations with the United States caused the first war, from 1855 to 1857, during which Kronenburg lost Cape Cod and some other territory now part of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Kronenburg however got help from - surprisingly - the United Kingdom. Following the peace treaty of Providence of 1857 Kronenburg would permanently loose the mainland areas, but got to keep West-Cod and a few of its surrounding smaller islands. During the American Civil War a few years later, Kronenburg supported the Confederates and reconquered the lost territories. During a surprise attack by the United States in 1871 the capital of Kronenburg-City was severely bombed and almost completely destroyed. This second war against the United States (the third, when Kronenburg's participation in the Civil War is counted as well) lasted only a few months, and when it was over, Kronenburg had again lost its territory on the continental mainland, but also the half of Long Island that had been Kronenburgish for nearly a century. It would take another century before the relations between the United States and Kronenburg would become any warmer.

In 1873 Alexanderstad was declared capital of Kronenburg, as the former capital was too badly damaged. Parliament moved into new buildings in the new capital. These had four wings, named after the four points of the compass-card. The state institutions thus got the names which they still have: Parliament became the Noordkamer, the Council of Ministers the Oostkamer, and the Royal Council the Westkamer. The southern wing firstly became occupied as of 1949.

After the death of king Alexander I in 1875 his son king Alexander II ascended the throne. The new king 'abused' his power to improve the relations with the United States, an act which many Kronenburg citizens considered to be treason. The king was deposed in 1879, after which his 19 years old daughter was put on the throne as queen Marianne. Various political factions finally agreed with each other that something had to change, and a constitution was designed and approved by all chambers of parliament in 1883. The head of state lost a great deal of power, but remained chairman of the Oostkamer (Council of Ministers). Also, ministers were appointed for seven year terms from now on. This was an experiment, because four years were initially considered to be too short a period to make structural policies. In 1917 however, the terms were shortened to four years for all chambers.

The era of queen Marianne (1879 - 1953)
The first years of queen Marianne's reign elapsed rather chaotically. The queen herself wasn't much amused by the new constitution, although it reduced not as much of her power as some politicians intended: the idea of a woman ruling the country - especially one as young as the queen - wasn't a cause for much enthusiasm. As the chairwoman of the government (Oostkamer) the queen clashed occasionally with the Noordkamer, and not only with the opposition. The members of the Noordkamer voted against continuation of the first Oostkamer that was formed under the new constitution seventeen times, but each time the queen refused to appoint other ministers instead. Within the ruling party CPK (Conservative Party) the situation grew tense and after six years the government fell, as the party ceased to exist. The party that won after the elections (CDP, Conservative Democrats) was the successor party of the CPK-faction opposed to the queen's former government. She refused to chair a government consisting of CDP members and early 1890 she locked herself up in her palace for eight years, complaining about a headache. The vice-presidents of the Oostkamer acted as chairmen during that period.

The country itself experienced a turbulent era as well. Very poor working conditions and low wages were the cause of several uprisings throughout the country between 1885 and 1897. The worst protest action resulted in the deaths of some 50 people that were locked in a collapsing factory in Denestad in February 1892. Apart from this, people were demanding universal suffrage - until 1910 only prominent male citizens were allowed to vote; after that, every man and woman above 23 years was allowed to vote. It was however not possible to vote for a woman for almost half a century after 1910; the queen or king could already appoint female ministers in the Oostkamer (the first female vice-president of the Oostkamer, Emma Wynolt-Jansma, was appointed as early as 1937!) but women couldn't get elected in the other chambers of parliament until 1957.

queen Marianne

After returning to public life in 1898 queen Marianne seemed to have tempered herself a lot. She resumed chairing some government sessions again, but most of the time she spent with her family. In 1884 she had married Ernst of Habsburg Lorraine, a son of emperor Franz Joseph. A consequence of this marriage was that Ernst had to adopt Lutheran faith in order to become accepted by Kronenburg law and people, so he lost his rights to the Austrian throne. By 1898 the queen and the prince consort had three children, the eldest of whom, crown prince Alexander, became a very popular figure in the Kronenburg high society from the first few years of the 20th century on. His two younger sisters, princesses Wilhelmina and Astrid, never showed themselves much in public and they both left Kronenburg after their marriages. In 1910 the crown prince married a Brazilian princess and in the following years their two sons and later kings William V Henry (1910 - 1963) and Alexander III Ernst (1917 - 2005) were born.

Although the monarchy was very popular in those days, the people were not. The First World War caused a lot of people fleeing to Kronenburg, which in turn caused unemployment and overpopulated cities. Kronenburg was neutral during the entire war, and although the government officially denied it, many deserting soldiers from Europe, and later also from the United States were welcomed by Kronenburg, where they could start a new life with a new identity. This unofficial policy caused anger among a small group of right wing politicians and xenophobia throughout the country, resulting in a national-socialist party (NSPK) that grew stronger during the twenties and thirties of the 20th century. The economic crisis of 1929 intensified the feelings of unrest. Although the NSPK managed to secure an already large amount of seats in the Noordkamer during the 1928 elections, its greatest victory came four years later, when it was able to form a democratically chosen majority on its own. After the elections of 1936 however the party lost its secure position and it was subsequently forbidden by queen Marianne herself.

In 1938 the NSPK staged a coup d'état, forcing the queen's government and the royal family to leave the country. The Republic of Kronenburg was founded, which was immediately recognized by Germany and Italy; the United States remained silent on the matter. Although officially democratic, the new republic was effectively a dictatorship, but things didn't get as harsh for minorities as they got in Europe. They were however forced to live in certain ghettos; in early 1941 three large and 41 smaller of such forced communities existed in Friescheburg. The system to distinguish inhabitants of the ghettos was very complex and it is said that some of the symbols that were used for this, caused some German officials visiting Kronenburg to burst out laughing and to make fun of the entire system.

Kronenburg was invaded by the United States in December 1941. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the American government used the invasion to show its people and the world that it was perfectly capable of retaliation. The NSPK government was taken prisoner and Kronenburg was treated as occupied territory. A witch hunt on NSPK members and sympathizers started, and people could be taken for interrogation at random times and places. Although many NSPK members were caught, there were also many people who simply cracked and confessed things they didn't do. From 1941 to 1945 more than 110.000 people were executed. After the end of the Second World War in 1945 the executions stopped, but it took another two years and much international effort to convince the U.S. to leave Kronenburg, which they finally did in 1947.

king William V

During the Cold War (1953 - 1991)
Queen Marianne became very old. She died in 1953 at 93. Her son, crown prince Alexander, was only 59 when he died ten years earlier. The queen was therefore succeeded by her grandson William V Henry. The new king was a shy, rather silent person who didn't seem to be interested in politics. He was, on the other hand, much involved in the rebuilding of kingdom after the country's development had stood still for about a decade - there was little war damage in Kronenburg, although bombardments during the American invasion in 1941 had caused minor damage to Alexanderstad and Friescheburg. King William V was married to Alexandra of Saxe Coburg and Gotha in 1936. They had only one son: crown prince John, the later king John II. The marriage is said to have been unhappy, which resulted in the crown prince leading a turbulent life with unsuitable friends. In 1961 and 1962 several Kronenburg gossip magazines contained special sections dedicated entirely to the scandals caused by prince John. Late 1962 king William became very ill and the magazines stopped writing everything about the crown prince. This was probably due to the fact that it was expected that the king wouldn't live much longer. The king's brother, prince Alexander Ernest, was appointed regent instead of the crown prince in December 1962. The prince tried to persuade the crown prince to take life more seriously, but the latter continued to act as he pleased. King William died in the following year and his 24 year old son was crowned king of Kronenburg. In December 1963, barely half a year after his coronation, king John II died in a car crash. Although this is the official story and there don't seem to have been any unusual circumstances, the king's death gave way to speculation: perhaps the king's car was tampered with, in order to make it look like an accident, the main purpose of which was to get rid of a disgraceful king and to restore the image of Kronenburg as a respectable country.

king Alexander III

The king's uncle was crowned shortly after the funeral. King Alexander III Ernest and his wife, queen Laura, married in 1948, just after the war. They had three children: present king Alexander IV Louis (*1948), princess Marianne (*1956) and prince William Henry (1960 - 1995). As king, Alexander III Ernest was very interested in the political aspect of his kingship and he took is constitutional place as chairman of the Oostkamer. Two years earlier a coalition of the liberal party (LKP) and the communist party (CFK) caused perhaps the most peculiar government in the history of Kronenburg. Much effort was needed for the new king to convince the United States government that Kronenburg didn't pose a threat to them, although there were communists leading the kingdom. Even more effort was needed in October 1964, when the CFK won so many seats in the Noordkamer that they were able to form a majority government on their own. Fact was, that the Kronenburg form of communism was somewhat different than that in the Soviet Union, China or Cuba. It had been necessarily influenced by the Kronenburg constitution; in order to form a coalition with the LKP and the Socialist Party as early as 1936 (the government that was overthrown by the NSPK two years later), the CFK had had to adapt itself to fit in. The Kronenburg communists favour democracy rather than a one-party system. After the 1968 elections however the CFK lost 55 seats in one shot (many leftist parties still suspect American interference), and a sixteen year rule of the main Christian democrat party (CGU) began. Many students and leftist organizations were angered by the sudden loss of the CFK and the end of 1968 and the whole of 1969 saw many demonstrations and riots. A second wave of violence took place around the 1972 elections, which saw an even further decline of the CFK (probably due to the unrest caused by its supporters, although the CFK denied that the people that were arrested, were party members).

During the seventies the influence of the king on the state policy was questioned by an increasing number of parties. Apart from that, since 1949 a fourth parliamental chamber had come into existence: the Zuidkamer, which was of course located in the southern wing of the houses of parliament. Initially there was discussion about the exact function of the new chamber, which resulted in the Westkamer and the Zuidkamer doing the same things. In 1979 a bill was drafted in order to change the constitution, limiting the king's political power and assigning more specific tasks to named chambers, the Westkamer getting emphasis on budget and other financial affairs. The constitution change was wholly conducted by the Christian CGU and caused many protests from other parties, who claimed that they should have had a say in the matter. King Alexander III himself, too, was not amused about the reduction of his political power. He threatened to abdicate, which, at that point, would have resulted in a great deal of political unrest. The Chairman of the Noordkamer, Willem de Vries, convinced the king to postpone his abdication for ten years. The king refused to have anything to do with politics from that moment on, instead focusing his attention on social matters and avoiding politicians. He abdicated in 1991 and was succeeded by his son, king Alexander IV Louis, the present king. King Alexander III died in 2005.

Kronenburg today (1991 - present)
Since 1981 the Kronenburg constitution looks more like those of other western countries. The function of prime minister exists since that year and ministers or even entire governments can be sacked before the whole four year term has ended. Between 1917 and 1981 ministers stayed on for exactly four years, no matter what (unless they died in office, of course, but that has never happened). The first government that resigned prematurely was that of prime minister Johan Achterberg in 2001; many people feared that Kronenburg had become an unstable state, with several new governments a year, and parties constantly campaigning instead of running the country, but it hasn't been as bad as that. In order to ease the transition after a government collapses, the Chairman of the Noordkamer is appointed acting prime minister in such a situation. So far, three governments have resigned prematurely (two forced by parliament, so that there have been two acting prime ministers accordingly) and one by choice. There have been five 'normal' prime ministers, the longest reigning of whom has been Sander Opland Falting, from 1989 to 2001. In 2006 some changes have been made to the 1981 constitution. The number of ministerial portfolios is not fixed anymore and parliament has been enlarged: the Noordkamer has grown from 125 to 175 seats, the Zuidkamer from 50 to 81 seats and the Westkamer from 25 to 34 seats.

The modern Kronenburg has taken a more conciliatory stance on its neighbour, the United States of America. Originally, Kronenburg refused to become a member of an international organization of which the U.S. were also a member. Therefore Kronenburg hasn't joined NATO nor NAFTA, although the possibilities of a NATO membership were investigated between 2008 and 2011. In 1973 Kronenburg joined the United Nations, and in 1984 the Organization of American States (OAS), both causing a lot of protests within the country. In 1989 Kronenburg successfully applied for membership of the Commonwealth of Nations, although the country never was a colony of Great-Britain. In 1999 Kronenburg joined the AGL, an organization of politically, culturally and/or economically more or less isolated countries. Kronenburg has not interfered in global conflicts. The attack on the United States on September 11th, 2001 caused a lot of panic and paranoia in Kronenburg, but the country has not taken sides, nor has it sent soldiers to Afghanistan or Iraq. More recently, Kronenburg did feel the effects of the economical problems in the United States, which created a similar effect on the Kronenburg house markets. In August 2007 the second government of Sonja Brahms resigned over this subject. Within the AGL Kronenburg was embarrassed by Marij Ühler, a diplomat who used her position as AGL Secretary General (2000 - 2003) for dubious affairs. She resigned under circumstances that have remained as yet a mystery, although one of the other AGL members, Norland, has since claimed that the whole affair is a setup, organized by Kronenburg and the Mii Isles. Kronenburg as well as the Mii Isles have of course dismissed these theories as pure nonsense.

The royal family has known some trouble since the accession of king Alexander IV. In 1995 the king's brother William Henry died, and the king's and queen Livia's marriage was quite bumpy during the nineties, after there were very stubborn rapports that the queen was having a lesbian affair. The king and queen have three sons, the eldest of whom, prince Alexander Casimir, was crown prince from 1991 to 1999. He married against the wishes of his parents and without the approval of parliament and lost his rights to the throne. The second son, prince John Ernest, thus became the new crown prince. The last fifteen years also saw the deaths of former king Alexander III Ernest and his wife queen Laura, and of the queen-dowager Alexandra, the wife of former king William V.

In December 2009, king Alexander IV suffered an intracranial hemorrhage, that left him in a coma for some months. Although he has awoken since then, he remains unfit to carry out his duties as head of state. It was therefore decided that crown prince John Ernest succeed him as king, which happened on 24 September 2010. The new king took the name Ernst I Frederik (Ernest I Frederick). A few years earlier, in 2007, the present king married Isabel van Oosterland-Engelbert, granddaughter of a Kronenburg duchess. They have two daughters and one son: princess Sofie Charlotte, who was born in July 2008, princess Carolina Hedwig, who was born in June 2010, and prince Ernst Michaėl, who was born in March 2013 and who is now the heir apparent, as brothers precede their sisters in the Kronenburg order of succession.