The former Republic of Bowdani was home to various languages and language groups, most important of which was Ingallish, which served as the language of the elite, as an administrative language, and it was the language used to communicate between people who didn't speak the same language. The most important local languages were Tak in the north, Flovaignian in the east, and the Kencari languages in the west and south, with Coare as a smaller language in the northwest. Additional languages of which there are only a few hundred or thousand native speakers left include the Pocari languages, Bëltse, Gen, and Vaara.
The Carian language are the largest non-Ingallish language family in former western Bowdani. It includes the Kencari group, consisting of Coastal Kencari, Lake Kencari, and White Kencari, the Pocari group, which has a North and a South variant, and the Coare language. The Carian languages may or may not be indigenous to Smalik and any relationship with other language families hasn't been proven yet. The Carian languages have very little morphology, meaning that functions like the plural of nouns and tenses of verbs are expressed by separate words rather than changing the main word or adding something to it; only Coastal Kencari developed something that could be described as cases, which are in fact postpositions that assimilated with the preceding word.
The Kencari and Pocari languages are spoken in the Lectern of United Kencari Peoples (LUKP), but only the Kencari languages have official status next to Ingallish. Coare is spoken in the Coare Republic.
nTaah Gil (literally 'The Language of Tak') is probably an isolate language, i.e. with no known or clear/proven relations to other languages. It is an ergative-absolutive language, which means that the subject of intransitive clauses is aligned with the object of transitive clauses and the subject of transitive clauses is set apart, instead of the more usual nominative-accusative systems, in which the subjects of both transitive and intransitive clauses are aligned and the object is set apart.
The Bëltse language is probably an isolate and has been made the official language of the Kingdom of Bëltse. The language has elaborate noun and verb systems and certain pronouns that may only be used when addressing, or speaking about, the King. This pronoun has been controversial since the founding of the modern Kingdom; according to those in favour of the monarchy, the pronoun existed more than thousand years ago, when the Bëltse (or Bullocks, as they were known in Bowdani history) were still independent, but due to lack of reliable written evidence it is uncertain if this pronoun has any historical basis or has been invented by the modern royal family.
The Gen language is probably an isolate as well and the official language of the Duchy of Gen. The language uses particles to indicate the nouns' functions in a sentence, the verb only reflects if the subject of a sentence is alive or dead (so if a person has died the verb form that is used has to reflect this status change). There is no clear distinction between singular and plural. Instead, a dual, plural or collective form of a noun can be the default form if it's the most commonly used form; rruqt 'forest' or 'trees' is a plural or collective noun, whereas rruqutti 'one tree' is the exception.
Like Bëltse, Gen, and Tak, Vaara is probably an isolate. It is a strongly fusional language, with long words that express a lot of information at once. Special about Vaara is that time is expressed by the noun instead of the verb. Silge (goat) can therefore exist as silge (goat, present), seilge (goat, neutral), silgett (goat, past), and sinilge (goat, future).