European Union
The EU (on the left in yellow) has 28 member states: the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Romania, Bulgaria, and Croatia.

Европейски Съюз
Evropská Unie
Europćiske Union
Europäische Union
Euroopa Liit
An tAontas Eorpach
Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση
European Union
Unión Europea
Union Européenne
Europska Unija
Unione Europea
Eiropas Savienība
Europos Sąjunga
Európai Unió
Unjoni Ewropea
Europese Unie
Unia Europejska
Uniăo Europeia
Uniunea Europeană
Európska Únia
Evropska Unija
Euroopan Unioni
Europeiska Unionen
a a a a
president of the European Council
Donald Tusk (pl)
since 1 December 2014
president of the European Commission
Jean-Claude Juncker (lu)
since 1 November 2014
 Lists
The fifteen longest serving heads of state
01. queen Elizabeth II (uk/gi/gg/im/je) 1952
02. queen Margrete II (dk/fo) 1972
03. king Carl XVI Gustav (se) 1973
04. prince Hans Adam II (li) 1989
05. king Harald V (no) 1991
06. president Nursultan Nazarbayev (kz) 1991
07. president Alyaksandar Lukashenka (by) 1994
08. grand duke Henri (lu) 2000
09. co-prince Joan Enric Vives i Sicília (ad) 2003
10. president İlham Əliyev (az) 2003
11. prince Albert II (mc) 2005
12. president Filip Vujanović (me) 2006
13. fra'Matthew Festing (mi) 2008
14. president Serzh Sargsyan (am) 2008
15. president Gjorge Ivanov (mk) 2009
The five longest serving monarchs
01. queen Elizabeth II (uk/gi/gg/im/je) 1952
02. queen Margrete II (dk/fo) 1972
03. king Carl XVI Gustav (se) 1973
04. prince Hans Adam II (li) 1989
05. king Harald V (no) 1991


The eight longest serving non-monarchs
01. president Nursultan Nazarbayev (kz) 1991
02. president Alyaksandar Lukashenka (by) 1994
03. president İlham Əliyev (az) 2003
04. president Filip Vujanović (me) 2006
05. president Serzh Sargsyan (am) 2008
06. president Gjorge Ivanov (mk) 2009
07. president Dalia Grybauskaitė (lt) 2009
08. president Michael D. Higgins (ie) 2011
The fifteen longest serving heads of government
01. Artur Rasizadə (az) 2003
02. Angela Merkel (de) 2005
0
3. Viktor Orbán (hu) 2010
04. Mark Rutte (nl) 2010
05. Enda Kenny (ie) 2011
0
6. Ian Gorst (je) 2011
07. Fabian Picardo (gi) 2011
08. Mariano Rajoy (es) 2011
09. Robert Fico (sk) 2012
10. Dmitri Medvedev (ru) 2012
11. Nicos Anastasiades (cy) 2013
12. Joseph Muscat (mt) 2013
13. Adrian Hasler (li) 2013
14. Edi Rama (al) 2013
15. Pietro Parolin (va) 2013 
List of the longest serving heads of state since 1950 (not party leaders, regents or temporary substitutes)
(1 January 1950) - 21 September 1957
21 September 1957 - 12 November 1964
12 November 1964 - 20 November 1975
20 November 1975 - 13 November 1989
13 November 1989 - 6 April 2005
6 April 2005 - present
king Haakon VII (Norway)
grand duchess Charlotte (Luxembourg)
Francisco Franco (Spain)
prince Franz Joseph II (Liechtenstein)
prince Rainier III (Monaco)
queen Elizabeth II (United Kingdom)
1905 - 1957
1919 - 1964
1936 - 1975
1938 - 1989
1949 - 2005
1952 - present
s s s
List of the longest serving heads of government since 1950
(1 January 1950) - 27 September 1968
27 September 1968 - 9 June 1973
9 June 1973 - 18 December 1981
18 December 1981 - 11 October 1988
11 October 1988 - 13 November 1989
13 November 1989 - 26 May 1993
26 May 1993 - 27 October 1998
27 October 1998 - 21 May 2002
21 May 2002 - 15 September 2006
15 September 2006 - 4 December 2013
4 December 2013 - 28 August 2014
28 August 2014 - present
António de Oliveira Salazar (Portugal)
Francisco Franco (Spain)
Mehmet Shehu (Albania)
Lubomír Strougal (Czechoslovakia)
Willi Stoph (German Democratic Republic)
Hans Brunhart (Liechtenstein)
Helmut Kohl (Germany)
Gabriele Gatti (San Marino)
Angelo Sodano (Vatican City)
Jean-Claude Juncker (Luxembourg)
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (Turkey)
Artur Rasizadə (Azerbaijan)
1932 - 1968
1938 - 1973
1954 - 1981
1970 - 1988
1976 - 1989
1978 - 1993
1982 - 1998
1986 - 2002
1990 - 2006
1995 - 2013
2003 - 2014
2003 - present
The fifteen current oldest heads of state of Europe The fifteen current youngest heads of state of Europe
01. queen Elizabeth II (uk/gi/gg/im/je)
02. pope Franciscus (va)
03. king Harald V (no)
04. president Joachim Gauck (de)
05. queen Margrethe II (dk/fo)
06. president Nursultan Nazarbayev (kz)
07. president Michael D. Higgins (ie)
08. president Sergio Mattarella (it)
09. president Miloš Zeman (cz)
10. prince Hans Adam II (li)
11. king Carl XVI Gustaf (se)
12. president Nicos Anastasiades (cy)
13. president Mustafa Akıncı (ct)
14. president Sauli Niinistö (fi)
15. president Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (pt)
01. president Igor Dodon (md)
02. president Andrzej Duda (pl)
03. president Kersti Kaljulaid (ee)
04. president Giorgi Margvelashvili (ge)
05. president Guđni Th. Jóhannesson (is)
06. president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (hr)
07. president Hashim Thaçi (ks)
08. king Felipe VI (es)
09. king Willem-Alexander (nl)
10. president Bujar Bishani (al)
11. president Raimonds Vējonis (lv)
12. president Petro Poroshenko (ua)
13. president Borut Pahor (si)
14. president Rumen Radev (bg)
15. president Doris Leuthard (ch)
The heads of state's birthdays
January
24 president Joachim Gauck (de)
30 king Felipe VI (es)
February
02 president Andrej Kiska (sk)
14 prince Hans Adam II (li)
15 president Tomislav Nikolić (rs)
18 president Igor Dodon (md)
21 king Harald V (no)
26 president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (tr)
March
01 president Dalia Grybauskaitė (lt)
14 prince Albert II (mc)
21 president Raul Khadjimba (ab)
28 president Leonid Tibilov (os)
April
10 president Doris Leuthard (ch)
15 king Philippe (be)
16 queen Margrete II (dk)
16 grand duke Henri (lu)
18 president Michael D. Higgins (ie)
21 queen Elizabeth II (uk/gi/gg/im/je)
24 president Hashim Thaçi (ks)
27 king Willem-Alexander (nl)
29 president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (hr)
30 king Carl XVI Gustaf (se)
May
02 president Gjorge Ivanov (mk)
09 president János Áder (hu)
16 president Andrzej Duda (pl)
26 captain-regent Fabio Berardi (sm)
June
13 president Klaus Iohannis (ro)
15 president Raimonds Vējonis (lv)
18 president Rumen Radev (bg)
26 president Guđni Th. Jóhannesson (is)
30 president Serzh Sargsyan (am)
July
06 president Nursultan Nazarbayev (kz)
09 captain-regent Marino Riccardi (sm)
10 president Prokopis Pavlopoulos (gr)
23 president Sergio Mattarella (it)
24 co-prince Joan Enric Vives i Sicília (ad)
August
03 acting president Doris Bures (at)
12 president François Hollande (fr/ad)
24 president Sauli Niinistö (fi)
September
01 president Filip Vujanović (me)
04 president Giorgi Margvelashvili (ge)
16 president Mladen Ivanić (ba)
20 president Alyaksandar Lukashenka (by)
26 president Petro Poroshenko (ua)
27 president Nicos Anastasiades (cy)
28 president Miloš Zeman (cz)
29 president Bujar Nishani (al)
October
07 president Vladimir Putin (ru)
November
02 president Borut Pahor (si)
30 grand master Fra' Matthew Festing (mi)
December
07 Marie Louise Coleiro Preca (mt)
12 president Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (pt)
17 pope Franciscus (va)
24 president İlham Əliyev (az)
28 president Mustafa Akıncı (ct)
30 president Kersti Kaljulaid (ee)
 Flags and capitals

Andorra
Andorra la Vella

Abkhazia
Аҟәа (Sukhumi)

Azerbaijan
Bakı (Baku)

Belarus
Minsk

Belgium
Brussel ˇ Bruxelles

Bosnia and Hercegovina
Sarajevo

Bulgaria
София (Sofia)

Czech Republic
Praha (Prague)

Vatican City (Holy See)
Cittŕ del Vaticano

Montenegro
Podgorica

Denmark
Křbenhavn (Copenhagen)

Germany
Berlin

Estonia
Tallinn

Ireland
Baile Átha Cliath (Dublin)

Greece
Αθήνα (Athens)

Spain
Madrid

France
Paris

Armenia
(Erevan)

Croatia
Zagreb

Iceland
Reykjavík

Italy
Roma (Rome)

Kazakhstan
Астана (Astana)

South Ossetia
Чъреба (Tskhinval)

Northern Cyprus
Lefkoşa (Nicosia)

Kosovo
Prishtinë (Pristina)

Southern Cyprus
Λευκωσία (Nicosia)

Latvia
Rīga (Riga)

Luxembourg
Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourg)

Liechtenstein
Vaduz

Lithuania
Vilnius

Hungary
Budapest

Macedonia
Скопје (Skopje)

Malta
Valetta

Moldova
Chişinău

Monaco
Monaco

The Netherlands
Amsterdam

Norway
Oslo

Order of Malta
-

Austria
Wien (Vienna)

Poland
Warszawa (Warsaw)

Portugal
Lisboa (Lisbon)

Romania
Bucureşti (Bucharest)

Russia
Москва (Moscow)

Georgia
(Tbilisi)

San Marino
San Marino

Switzerland
Bern

Albania
Tiranë (Tirana)

Slovenia
Ljubljana

Slovakia
Bratislava

Serbia
Београд (Belgrade)

Finland
Helsinki

Sweden
Stockholm

Turkey
Ankara

Ukraine
Київ (Kiev)

United Kingdom
London
 

Ĺland Islands
(FI autonomous province)
Mariehamn

Faroe Islands
(DK autonomous province)
Tórshavn

Gibraltar
(UK overseas territory)
Gibraltar

Guernsey
(UK Crown dependency)
Saint Peter Port

Isle of Man
(UK Crown dependency)
Douglas

Jersey
(UK Crown dependency)
Saint Helier