Proto-Cartian arrival on Borealia and pre-Dumerian era
Cartyas was populated by descendants of tribes that probably originated on the Iberian peninsula or the French west coast (Aquitania). Historians aren't sure exactly when the proto-Cartians crossed the ocean to Borealia. Some claim that they arrived as early as 500 BCE, based on found objects that have been attributed to proto-Cartians. Others say that it was probably 200 BCE, and there are also those who say that several groups of proto-Cartians arrived at different moments in these centuries. The conquest of the Iberian peninsula by the Romans may have played an important role in the decision of the proto-Cartians to leave Europe, and supporters of this theory therefore claim that the proto-Cartians were originally from the Iberian peninsula.

The proto-Cartians probably arrived in what is now the Dumerian province of Equistria. They encountered a land that was only scarcely populated and the indigenous people quickly assimilated with the immigrants. The society grew rather quickly and expanded to the areas that are now called Eleusium and Perisia. The islands, including the nearby Daedalussa, Celadussa and Insubria, were mainly left alone, although small groups of people who didn't want to live under the increasing rule of the Cartian Empire, did settle there.

The Cartian Empire, as it is often called, was a rather loosely organised society lead by a 'chosen' protector (X́ahala, nowadays translated with 'governor'). In practice, this protector was the strongest man or woman who most often came to power by killing his or her predecessor. Around 50 BCE the x́ahala's power base was very solid, although it depended on the support of some kind of mercenary army, and therefore the question was always if the x́ahala had enough money to pay his or her army. The x́ahala was the main responsible for the growing trade with neighbouring people. When there was a sufficient amount of money and goods, most Cartians were able to live in relative prosperity; if there wasn't, the army was paid first in order to be willing to control the potentially angry people.

In the mean time, Romans had arrived in 46 BCE on the island off the coast and they started to expand their territory slowly. Although the relationship between the Dumerians (as they called themselves) and the Cartians started fairly well, the Dumerian urge to expand lead to the moment that the only direction they were able to expand to, was Cartian territory. In 193 CE the Cartian settlement of İćėv́i (the largest Cartian town and residence of the x́ahala, located near the present day Dumerian city of Burdigala) was attacked and conquered by the Dumerians. A large part of the mostly wooden town was destroyed by fire and the ruling x́ahala was killed. The Dumerians occupied the town and its surroundings. The Cartians were caught completely off guard and fled the area without serious resistance.

Migration due to Dumerian expansion
Because the Cartian residence had been located on possibly the most central and strategic place of the realm, the Cartian Empire was now geographically divided in two. The Dumerians sent envoys to the eastern part (Equistria and Perisia) and supported the election of a
x́ahala who was friendly with the Dumerians. This x́ahala was able to count on the support of Dumerian soldiers. In practice, this eastern realm became a Dumerian protectorate until it was formally annexed by Dumeria in 342 CE. The northern Cartian realm continued to resist Dumerian supremacy and tried to defeat their enemy several times, only to find out that their eastern Cartian countrymen had joined the Dumerians. The northern Cartians moved along the coast to the north, where they eventually settled around the Elzha river in small towns that had already been founded by Cartians in an earlier stage: V́odė, Ėǵu̇bȯ and Oca.

The Dumerians continued however to expand and around 300, they planned to invade the Avamian coast (nowadays a part of Carthamia). In order to get there, they had to go through Cartian territory. The Cartians had to flee again and they moved upstream. The Dumerians followed and besieged and conquered the town of Ėǵu̇bȯ. Several armies that entered the valley deeper, were attacked by the Cartians, and in 323 a Dumerian army was trapped and slaughtered by Cartian warriors in the vicinity of the settlement of Vȧrćaq́am (north of present-day Hov́an). This victory proved beneficial for the Cartian morale. The Dumerians were stopped and a border between the two realms was created nearby present-day Ėbuxicaxe.

The fragile peace gave the Cartians the time to adapt to their new surroundings and to rebuild their society. At first, the Cartians explored Lake Elzha and settled around the shores. The new x́ahala, Ehoh The Wise (319 - 346) was not as power-hungry as most of his predecessors and under his rule, a Cartian nation was reconstructed. New towns were founded, including Curśa (343) that would eventually become the capital of modern Cartyas. X́ahala Ehoh ruled for many years and was one of the few original x́ahalas who died a natural death.

His successor İna (346 - 357) was far more belligerent. Although Ehoh had several armies ready for defensive purposes in order to protect the country against new Dumerian attacks, these were never deployed. X́ahala İna trained them however for offensive purposes as well, and under his command one of these armies crossed the Fugesian mountains and ransacked several Dumerian settlements before reaching the city of Traianopolis, which it besieged. The Dumerian army at Ėǵu̇bȯ was now forced to retreat and come to the rescue. A long war ensued which lasted several years and during which x́ahala İna was killed. In 361 the war came to an end after the Battle of V́odė. Neither party managed to make any progress after this, and therefore the definitive border between Dumeria and Cartyas was drawn here.

Medieval rivalry and civil wars
Since the Battle of V́odė, the largely isolated Cartian realm was mostly left alone, although mysterious disappearances and vague reports of 'Cartian hordes coming down from the mountains to ransack and destroy entire villages' contributed to many popular stories and superstition. These disappearances and attacks on foreign villages occurred however by accident and were a result of internal rivalry between Cartian tribes that emerged since the Cartians were bored with peace. Various families came to power and lost it again, sometimes after several generations, more often already within a year. During many centuries, Lake Elzha was home to many bloody lake battles that were fought between tribes on all sides of the lake.

Attacks outside the Cartian realm were the result of lost warriors who thought that they had encountered the village of an enemy tribe. This violent atmosphere in the Fugesian mountains made that the Cartians became even more isolated. Foreign travellers who chose to enter the mountains, were never seen again and some foreign attempts to subjugate the Cartians, were all abandoned. In this era the area was stuffed with fortresses, castles and strongholds in order to protect the population from itself. Thanks to its violent Middle Ages, Cartyas has now one of the highest number of castles and ruins in the world.

Not all Cartians however took part in the internal battles. Some moved to the west, to Avamia, which was part of the Kathoran Empire. The Cartian agrarians settled without many problems between the indigenous peoples and modestly influenced the local language and culture in the years that followed.

Also during the Middle Ages first contact was made with the Nagaskian people, who lived in the present-day south-eastern part of Cartyas. From the Nagaskians the Cartians adopted the Nagaskist belief system, which would eventually replace the original Cartian nature religions.

In the first half of the 17th century, parts of Carthamia were conquered by Spain in an attempt to prevent the Carthamians from helping the Dutch in the latter's independence war. Although the Cartians hadn't involved themselves in foreign politics until that moment, the Cartian coast around Oca was occupied by the Spaniards in 1621. The Spanish presence didn't last long however; after less than twenty years, they were chased away by the Carthamians, who kept the Cartian coast for themselves.

In 1712 V́ohuq́, governor of the Xėlurq́ȧ territory, managed to conquer two neighbouring territories and to subject another to Xėlurq́ȧn taxes, while marrying the heir of a fourth territory, who died however within a year under suspicious circumstances, after which she married the heir of yet a fifth region. In the years that followed, a large part of the area was put under the control of this lady. In 1724, she appointed herself Governor of the Entire Country (Ė Vukėn Cȧrq́ilazėn X́ahalȧ), and the name "Cartyas" (derived from the Cartian word for Land or Country) became the official designation for the Cartian realm. Under her rule, a calm period of time began during which she declared the Nagaskist religion the most important of the country. On the other hand, she tried to reconquer the Cartian coast from the Carthamians and she did an attempt to add the half-Cartian Avamia to her territory, which however failed.

In 1753 governor V́ohuq́ was succeeded by her brother, governor Ezile, who died of a heart attack three years later. Shortly after his son Ȧx́hȧrq́ succeeded him a power vacuum occurred in the Carthamian Empire after the death of emperor Orvas I Nervayn; Ȧx́hȧrq́ concluded a treaty with the Duke of Blomastic, Gr˙gero Nervayn, to support the latter in his attempt to gain the Carthamian throne, in exchange for the return of Oca and the Cartian coast to Cartyas.

Although V́ohuq́'s successors managed to continue the stability that she initiated, their rule became increasingly despotic. The first governors since the unification made frequent use of Prussian and Schellingish advisors to govern the country; although having contact with the eastern neighbour was difficult (Schellingen could be reached after a hard journey through the mountainous region in the east), the relationship with the Prussians in Schellingen was significantly better than with the closer neighbours in the west, north and south. The fact that the country's religion originated from the east as well, was seen by the governors as a good sign to conduct business with Schellingen.

At the beginning of the 19th century the area surrounding the river Elzha was almost completely in Cartian hands. The mountains between Cartyas and Schellingen had been unclaimed, although it was the home of several adventurers from Cartian origin as well as a few indigenous Nagaskian tribes, and later also Prussian and Schellingish deserters. The lonely and isolated existence was appealing to these diverse people for several reasons and until 1834 they were mostly left alone. In that year governor Orq́uq (1831 - 1854) decided that Cartians should live in Cartyas and he started a series of military expeditions to subjugate the east and the southeast. In order to close the area in the south-eastern corner (it was relatively easily accessible from Schellingen, although that country didn't seem interested in the area) he built a series of fortified castles that were connected by a large wall. This wall has never had the need to prove its usefulness however, and although it is still a remarkable structure, it hasn't been maintained since 1945.

Societal and industrial revolution
In 1854 the people no longer accepted the tyrannical rule of the governors and, supported by an intellectual elite that thought Cartyas should adopt a more modern and international character, staged a revolution. The ruling governor was deposed and executed in a gruesome way, after which a more or less democratic government was brought to power (those who paid the most taxes, both men and women, were allowed to  have their say in politics). As from that moment, Cartyas tried to do everything to become as modern as possible a country. Official relations were established with its neighbouring countries and the industrial revolution that had been going on in other countries for a few decades, was introduced at high speed. This lead to economic prosperity in the higher classes of society, but caused great misery among the workers.

The 1913 revolution (during which, yet again, a governor was murdered in a horrible way) ended this unequal system, but the country succumbed to a civil war that lasted for nine years.

Interbellum, Second World War, First Hilgar War
The Treaty of Hov́an of 1922 meant the end of internal conflicts and introduced the form of government that is still in function today. The first governors after 1922 were elected for four year terms, in 1949 the terms were extended to seven years, and since 1991 governors are appointed for life (or for as long as they are capable of fulfilling their duties), but the office is entirely ceremonial. Cartyas has a decentralised government system and the national government is a group of persons who mostly decide among them who will join or leave them; parliament - the Thing - can however give advice about the ministerial appointments and government is obliged to act accordingly. The army, which had been the governor's private army until 1913, was nationalised in 1926 and put under the authority of the ministry of defence.

During the Second World War, Cartyas chose to remain neutral, but the National Republic of Rudentia-Fugesia, an ally of Germany that split off from Tholenia, did an attempt to invade the country, possibly because of the raw materials that are hidden in the Cartian part of the Fugesian mountains. In Cartyas they didn't manage to make the occupation last and in 1944 they were forced to withdraw. The Cartian army pursued them and occupied the parts of Rudentia-Fugesia that are now known as East- and West-Rudentia. The army destroyed large parts of the existing infrastructure, in order to prevent the enemy from attempting to reconquer their territories: roads and railways were blown up and the existing telephone system was dismantled. This strategy proved helpful during the First Hilgar War of 1973, when Tholenia tried to annex the two regions.

At first, East- and West-Rudentia were governed directly by the Ministry of Annexed Territories; in 1989 they were divided into Towns and Fields and given equal status to the rest of Cartyas.

Recession and reform attempts
Especially in the second half of the 20th century, Cartyas was struck by a continuing economic recession. The resources in the mountains became increasingly difficult to mine and Cartyas didn't have the means and the expertise to dig deeper. In 1973 Cartyas was involved in the First Hilgar War, when Tholenia tried to reconquer the territory that was annexed by Cartyas in 1944. Although Cartyas won the war, it took a lot of strength from the army. Thanks to its modest weapon trade, Cartyas managed to make end meet, but this branch of Cartian industry took a heavy blow after peace broke out between Carthamia and Tholenia; until that moment these countries had been the two most important buyers of Cartian weapons.

The government system that was introduced in 1922 turned out to cause the national economy to be far less flexible. As soon as the national government started to realise this (well known are the speeches in favour of change by prime minister Pėter Vushauv́eme (1982-1985, 1991, and 1994-1995), several attempts were made to change the system and hand over more power to the national government, but most of these attempts failed.

The seaquake that hit the Scipionian Sea in 1998 caused a lot of damage in the Cartian coastal area. Short circuit on the Cegali Cȧ in the harbour area of Oca caused a fire that destroyed several warehouses. Although there weren't so many Cartian fatalities during and immediately after the quake, a large office building in the city centre of Oca collapsed on 5 April 2001, causing the deaths of 167 people. An investigation revealed that the building was so severely destabilised during the sea quake that it should have been closed and demolished. The government issued mandatory periodical check-ups for public buildings and buildings with more than three floors.