Due to its location, only 17% of the Adzhatian economy consists of agriculture, the most part of which is reserved for cattle-breeding. Industry currently forms about 45% of the economy, down from 55% before the collapse of the Soviet Union and still decreasing. As a result, the most growing part of the economy is the service sector. Adzhatia's main export products are chemical products, refrigerators and fish, whereas oil, technological products, cars, provisions and raw materials are the most important import products.
In 2011, Adzhatia was one of the poorer European countries; the nominal GDP rate was $6,388 million according to that year's IMF list.
Although there are suspicions of oil quantities under the Adzhatian territorial waters, more serious research started only recently. Energy supplies are therefore imported, mainly from Russia. In Adzhatia a lot of research is done after natural energy sources such as solar and wind energy; also the comfortable amount of water in Adzhatia's vicinity is used to gain energy. The country has one nuclear facility, located in the district of Drezeńe Adźaciaisa Krais, near the south-western coastal town of Barhveź.
Between 1990 and 2004, the Adzhatian was liberalized at a speed less high than in some other former Soviet republics. The strict policies of former president Miheĺ Pjotarśŭn prevented all too sudden changes of the economy and in 2004 the Adzhatian economy was quite stable and healthy. Due to this, Adzhatians have a relatively high GDP per capita. Sloppy maintenance following the end of Pjotarśŭn's presidency and the several coup d'états that followed, as well as the world wide financial crisis of 2008 were more than the economy could take; the country has been in a recession since half way 2006.
Currently the government is investing in mobile phone and internet penetration. In the four largest cities internet has been a common communication method for some years now and around 80% of the population in the districts of Kŏpunceźiś Krais, Gĕĺa Koŕzăm Krais and Kerceze Krais uses mobile phones. In the next few years the rest of the country should be disclosed.
Recently there have been plans to improve the tourist industry of Adzhatia, which will focus mainly on the country's natural landscapes. Currently the city centre of the country's capital city of Ashtinok is being restyled and modernised; the northernmost capital of the world should become a wanted destination for short city trips.
The main highway of Adzhatia is the A1 between Ŏvanalăć and Alidaŕ, which passes Vredŭla Cħvaśźiś, Ashtinok, Kercei, Pruteilăć and Ŭce. Then there is the A2 from Kosegińdrăt to Ħŭŕć, which intersects the A1 near Ashtinok. Around the capital, parts of the highways have four lanes; the rest has two lanes.
There is one railroad in Adzhatia, between Ashtinok and Alidaŕ. This railroad could use some maintenance and was in 2009 one of the most dangerous railroads of Europe.
The largest airport of Adzhatia is the one of Ashtinok. Since 2005 it has been nameless, as the former name Miheĺ Iĺicśŭn International Airport of Adzhatia was abolished in that year. From Ashtinok regular connections are maintained with three smaller regional airports: Ŏvanalăć in the north, Barhveź in the south and Ćŭŕdveź in the district of Sarăm Krais. Other airfields maintain irregular connections with Ashtinok. There are international connections between Ashtinok and Moscow, Minsk, Kiev, Helsinki, Stockholm, Oslo, London and Düsseldorf (Germany).
Some of the larger coastal towns and cities in the east of the country maintain ferry services with the islands of Sarăm Krais. Weekly ferry services are maintained between Adzhatia and Russia and Norway.