The State of Adzhatia is a parliamentary republic. The legislative is formed by the Dume (Думча), which has 160 members. The executive consists of the president and the government, the latter of which is headed by a prime minister. Since the president has a largely ceremonial function, the largest amount of political power is invested in the prime minister. Presidential and parliamentary elections are held every four years. The current president is ms Kataŕine Matuś-Ħememiemei (in office since 11 October 2014); the current prime minister is mr. Eigĕń Hameen, who has been leading two broad coalition governments of three parties, and one minority government of two parties since 30 December 2011.

History
The Adzhatian A.S.S.R. was officially founded on 1 December 1950. Miheĺ Iĺicśŭn was appointed Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet ('President'). Not many eventful things happened in Adzhatia until 1979, when Miheĺ Iĺicśŭn openly requested the promotion of the A.S.S.R. into an S.S.R. Since however S.S.R.'s had the (theoretical) constitutional right to secede from the Soviet Union, the request was declined out of fear that the strategical island with its large military capacity would gain independence and fall into the hands of NATO.

Miheĺ Iĺicśŭn was replaced as Chairman of the Presidium in 1982. His successor Vadim Erkŏhśŭn died however unexpectedly after two years and Miheĺ Iĺicśŭn was restored to power, only for himself to die in 1986. His brother Pjotaŕ Iĺicśŭn was appointed Chairman of the Presidium. Under his rule, nationalist movements gained influence and lead the country into independence in 1990 and 1991. Pjotaŕ Iĺicśŭn however died in the process.

The newly independent country elected Miheĺ Pjotarśŭn, Pjotaŕ Iĺicśŭn's son, as its first president. Soon however, he provd somewhat dictatorial and although elections were organised regularly and human rights weren't violated on a large scale, it seemed to be impossible to elect someone else as president, and nothing significant changed during his rule from 1990 to 2004. Miheĺ Pjotarśŭn was deposed in what seemed a short revolution, but it turned out later that he had been bought out. Due to this, several coup d'Útats took place in the two years that followed, with one party even turning the country in a constitutional monarchy for ten days. The climax of this situation took place in November 2005, after which the republic was restored.

In 2006, the current constitution was adopted, in which the role of the head of state (president) was reduced to a largely ceremonial one. The head of government (prime minister) became the main figure of the executive power.

The Dume
The legislative power is formed by a unicameral parliament, the Dume (Думе 'Parliament' or Думча 'The Parliament') with 160 seats. 115 of those are elected at least every four years by proportional representation. The other 45 are elected by means of a district system, using the Single Transferable Vote system. While the 115 proportionally elected members of parliament can be sacked before the end of their four year terms, this is not possible for the 45 regionally elected members: their mandates expire after four years and none of the representatives elected by regional representation can be elected in the same manner again. They may however be re-elected for one of the 115 proportional seats. Should a regionally elected member of the Dume die or resign, he will not be replaced but until the next elections for the regional seats.

The next Adzhatian parliamentary elections will take place no later than 1 July 2017 for the 115 proportionally elected seats, and on 29 September 2018 for the 45 regionally elected seats.

Since 16 October 2014, the seat division in the Dume is as follows (the coalition government since 20 May 2016 in blue, with supporting parties in green):
 

party prop. reg. total
Secializdźiś social-democrats 47 5 52

Adźać Valteźiś Ŏdźa Demokradźiś (AVŎD)

liberal-democrats 21 14 35

Năve Komunistiće Partića (NKP)

communist 21 9 30
Ĕrevi Śviveź left-liberal, pro-EU 9 2 11
Trŏśtan Frentciŕ conservative, populist 5 4 9

Dzalităm Partića (DZ-P)

green, ecologist 3 2 5

Partića Ŏdźai Adźaciai (PŎA)

right-liberal 2 2 4
Bloc-Ħĭnzei conservative 3 0 3

Năve Seciaĺdemokratiće Partića (NSP)

socialdemocratic 0 3 3
Pjotarśŭniće Partića (PP = former OVMP) communist 2 0 2

Iństătciŕ Gleŕiă Adźaciai (IGA)

nationalist, populist 1 0 1

Śăĺveź hă Saħe (ŚhS)

conservative, Christian 1 0 1
regional parties various 0 4 4
TOTAL 115 45 160

The judiciary
The present judicial system of Adzhatia took its form after a series of changes to the constitution and other laws between 1991 and 2006. There are Courts of First Instance (Прање Інстанціаіса Ґове), a Court of Appeal (Апелаціан Ґофцу), a Supreme Court (Мапѳішт Ґофцу), and a Constitutional Court (Кенстітуціан Ґофцу). The Supreme Court is divided in a civil and a criminal section.

Every district has a Court of First Instance, with small annexes in remote villages; these may only treat minor cases. The Supreme and the Constitutional Courts are both in Ashtinok, but the Court of Appeal is located in Kercei. Normal judges are appointed for life by the president after being nominated by the Special Commission of Magistrates; the president cannot choose and appoint candidates of his own choice. The Constitutional Court consists of seven judges; two are directly appointed by the Special Commission of Magistrates, two by the president, two by the Dume and one by the district governors together. The judges of the Constitutional Court are appointed for life in principle, but after ten years a judge may be removed if three of the four parties that appoint the judges for the Constitutional Court (i.e. the Special Commission of Magistrates, the president, the Dume, and the district governors together) find that a judge is no longer serving the country's best interest. A judge may decide to step down for health reasons at all times.

The current seven judges of the Constitutional Court are:
     Aśvĕĺ Eśka (since 1998, appointed by the Dume)
     Konstantiń Ĕćuńź (since 1998, appointed by the Special Commission of Magistrates)
     Konstantiń Popŏv (since 2007, appointed by the Dume)
     Đĕdrik Lulije (since 2007, appointed by the president)
     Albert Popuvănskie (since 2007, appointed by the district governors)
     Feliks Mĕśićek (since 2013, appointed by the Special Commission of Magistrates)
     Viktoŕe Treśiħin-Ŕŭnak (f) (since 2016, appointed by the president)

Controversy
There is an ongoing public debate whether or not the two remaining members of the Constitutional Court that were appointed before the 2004 revolution should be replaced, as both the Dume and the Special Commission of Magistrates were in practice heavily influenced by the president. However, the judges appointed in 1998 were allowed to remain on their posts after ten years.

Key persons in Adzhatian politics

Heads of state of Adzhatia
According to the 2006 constitution, the President of the Adzhatian state is elected by the Adzhatian people in one round of voting, in which the voters may give up to five preference votes (or less, if there are less than five candidates). If, after counting the first preference votes, no candidate has obtained more than 50% of the votes, the candidate with the least amount of votes will leave the race and the second preference votes of the first preference votes that were in favour of that candidate, will be distributed among the other candidates. This procedure is repeated until a candidate has obtained more than 50% of the votes.
 

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

took office left office party
1 Miheĺ Iĺicśŭn 01 12 1950 29 03 1982 AKP
2 Vadim Erkŏhśŭn 29 03 1982 17 07 1984 AKP
(1) Miheĺ Iĺicśŭn (2nd term) 18 07 1984 09 03 1986 AKP
3 Pjotaŕ Iĺicśŭn 13 03 1986 27 09 1990 AKP

After 1990, the heads of state had several designations: President of the Adzhatian Republic, Head of the Adzhatian State, King of Adzhatia and President of the Adzhatian State. In the table below, these are indicated with resp. par, has, k and pas.

Heads of state of independent Adzhatia

took office left office party
1 Miheĺ Pjotarśŭn (par) 02 10 1990 18 06 2004 AKP
2 Ereh Ħĭnzei (par) 08 08 2004 09 06 2005 AVŎD
3 Ăŕva Ośŕoncei (has) 09 06 2005 19 11 2005 Opp.
4 Miheĺ I Uraħ (k) 19 11 2005 29 11 2005 -
(2) Ereh Ħĭnzei (par, 2nd term) 29 11 2005 07 10 2006 AVŎD
5 Grigeŕ Maććok (pas) 07 10 2006 09 10 2010 -
6 Ăŕva Bekina (pas) 09 10 2010 11 10 2014 -
7 Kataŕine Matuś-Ħememiemei (pas, f) 11 10 2014 incumbent AVŎD

Prime ministers of Adzhatia
The office of prime minister was created in 2004, but abolished between 9 June and 19 November 2005.

Prime ministers of Adzhatia

took office left office party
1 Valentiń Lăńkaĺ 18 06 2004 07 06 2005 AVŎD
2 Pekka Cirpăń 07 06 2005 09 06 2005 AVŎD
3 Ăŕva Ośŕoncei 19 11 2005 29 11 2005 Opp.
0 Adriań Hićrecei (acting) 30 11 2005 14 03 2006 -
4 Ŕanije Erijeź (f, acting until 30 September 2006) 14 03 2006 21 10 2007 Sec.
5 Ereh Ħĭnzei 21 10 2007 16 04 2010 B-Ħ
(4) Ŕanije Erijeź (f, 2nd term) 16 04 2010 13 09 2011 Sec.
6 Galine Pańńiub-Koka (f) 13 09 2011 29 09 2011 ĔŚ
0 Ăŕva Tŭle (acting) 29 09 2011 30 12 2011 AVŎD
7 Eigĕń Hameen 30 12 2011 14 08 2013 Sec.
14 08 2013 20 05 2016
20 05 2016 incumbent

Chairpersons of the Dume
Although the chairperson of the Dume doesn't have to be a member of a government party, this is often the case nevertheless. If the largest party is negotiating with a smaller party to form a coalition government, endorsing a candidate of that smaller party as Dume chairperson is considered a 'decent' thing to do. This does not always function the way parties intend: e.g. the chairman elected on 1 December 2011 is a member of the Secializdźiś party, which was supposed to be the junior coalition partner in a government with the largest party NKP. The NKP ended up in opposition however, so Secializdźiś held both the office of prime minister and the chair of the Dume until 6 September 2012, when mr. Ćŭrupa stepped down.

Chairpersons of the Dume

took office left office party
1 Ereh Ikijeć 19 12 1990 10 10 1991 PŎA
2 Vassiĺ Guŕćvei 10 10 1991 12 10 1995 AKP
3 Grigeŕ Eńńa 12 10 1995 01 06 2004 AKP
4 Grigeŕ Aśvuei 01 06 2004 27 09 2007 Sec.
5 Fabiań Ovać 27 09 2007 08 04 2010 B-Ħ
6 Ăŕva Tŭle 08 04 2010 01 12 2011 AVŎD
0 Ilja Juvanśŭn (acting for Ăŕva Tŭle) 29 09 2011 01 12 2011 PŎA
7 Śvein Ćŭrupa 01 12 2011 06 09 2012 Sec.
8 Eve Ħrăħ (f, acting until 12 September 2012) 06 09 2012 incumbent ĔŚ

The government
Currently, the government is a minority coalition of Secializdźiś (S) and Dzalit
ăm Partića (Z) which has been in office since 20 May 2016. It consists of the following ministers:
     Eigĕń Hameen (S), prime minister
     Pekka Kŏroc
(Z), minister of domestic affairs
     Seńie Burćak-Vecħevei (f, S), minister of defense
     Demitrieź Fŭĺgan (S), minister of foreign affairs
     Zăre Geŕvia-Sa­­ei (f, Z), minister of economic affairs, budget, trade and industry
     Alikśia Dźerdźiĕv (S), minister of finance
     Vitaĺ Ăħcvehei (S), minister of justice and democratic affairs
     Vladimiŕ Kristjanson (S), minister of public health
     Ăŕseń Păńćenka (S), minister of social affairs
     Valentiń Meŕaśħek (S), minister of traffic
     Ăŕva Escħvićek (Z), minister of communication
     Pavoĺ Raikonen (S), minister of culture, tourism and disaster management
     Orez Taŕćek-Ĺenideź (f, S), minister of housing
     Eve Morozŏv-Bălta (f, Z), minister of spatial planning
     Aĺĺe Kuićaŕ-Ćocuń (f, S), minister of fisheries
     Ŭrije Bahei (f, S), minister of education and equal rights
     Marine Tacceź (f, S), minister of internet and social media
     Slava Cħvoukićei (Z), minister of environment and society
     Iĺic Tărkuna (S), minister of energy and natural resources